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Effect of south-north relay mode on the nutritive compositions of haliotis discus hannai

  • Corresponding author: Ccaihuang KE, chke@xmu.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2018-10-08
    Accepted Date: 2019-04-14
  • The south-north relay mode of abalone culture, a common practice in China, was designed to increase the survival rate of abalone in the south in summer. The abalone usually was transported to the north(Rongcheng, Shandong) in April from southern China(Lianjiang, Fujian)and returned to the south in November. In this study, the impact of this mode on the nutritive compositions of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) were investigated.The main method was the series of GB.5009. The determined indexes include moisture, cholesterol, ash, protein, lipid, glycogen, collagen, mineral elements(Mg、Al、Ca、Mn、Fe、Cu、Zn、Se),delicious amino acids(aspartic acid、glutamic acid、glycine、alanine、arginine、methionine、lysine),taurine and fatty acid. SPSS 24.0 statistical software(independent sample t-test)was used to determine the significance of the differences between two groups. The experimental results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (X±SD).Two groups of adult abalone(two years old)with the same algae diet (Gracilaria lemaneiformis) were sampled for the analysis in December, 2017. One group was cultured in Lianjiang, Fujian (Southern China) without migration (LJ-DD) and another was moved to Shandong (Northern China) before the summer and returned to Lianjiang in November (SD-DD). Live samples were moved to laboratory within 24 hours, taking abalone foot muscle to freeze drying after anatomy and grinding into powder. These powder were saved in −80 °C freezer.The results showed that contents of ash and collagen were higher in LJ-DD, but not significantly. The cholesterol, lipid and glycogen content were higher in SD-DD, but not significantly. Moisture content was significantly higher in SD-DD (76.50%WW) than LJ-DD(73.70%WW) while total protein content was significantly lower in SD-DD(48.40%DW). For mineral profile, Se content was significantly higher in LJ-DD(0.07 mg/100g)than SD-DD(0.05 mg/100g). Besides, Mg and Al contents were higher in SD-DD and Ca、Fe、Cu and Zn contents were lower in SD-DD, but the differences were not significantly. For amino acid profile, the contents of glutamic acid, arginine, lysine and total delicious amino acid were significantly higher in LJ-DD than SD-DD. Besides, taurine content was significantly lower in SD-DD than LJ-DD. For fatty acid profile, C20:3n6 content was significantly higher in LJ-DD than SD-DD. SFA and N-3 fatty acid were higher in SD-DD, MUFA、PUFA and EPA+DHA contents were higher in LJ-DD, but not significantly. The value of N6/N3 was lower in SD-DD than LJ-DD, but the differences were not significantly. Overall, two groups had similar composition, but SD-DD had higher nutritional value than LJ-DD.To summarize, the south-north relay mode has both some negative influences and some positive influences on the nutritional quality of Haliotis discus hannai, but such difference is not too large in total.
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Effect of south-north relay mode on the nutritive compositions of haliotis discus hannai

    Corresponding author: Ccaihuang KE, chke@xmu.edu.cn
  • Collage of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China

Abstract: The south-north relay mode of abalone culture, a common practice in China, was designed to increase the survival rate of abalone in the south in summer. The abalone usually was transported to the north(Rongcheng, Shandong) in April from southern China(Lianjiang, Fujian)and returned to the south in November. In this study, the impact of this mode on the nutritive compositions of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) were investigated.The main method was the series of GB.5009. The determined indexes include moisture, cholesterol, ash, protein, lipid, glycogen, collagen, mineral elements(Mg、Al、Ca、Mn、Fe、Cu、Zn、Se),delicious amino acids(aspartic acid、glutamic acid、glycine、alanine、arginine、methionine、lysine),taurine and fatty acid. SPSS 24.0 statistical software(independent sample t-test)was used to determine the significance of the differences between two groups. The experimental results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (X±SD).Two groups of adult abalone(two years old)with the same algae diet (Gracilaria lemaneiformis) were sampled for the analysis in December, 2017. One group was cultured in Lianjiang, Fujian (Southern China) without migration (LJ-DD) and another was moved to Shandong (Northern China) before the summer and returned to Lianjiang in November (SD-DD). Live samples were moved to laboratory within 24 hours, taking abalone foot muscle to freeze drying after anatomy and grinding into powder. These powder were saved in −80 °C freezer.The results showed that contents of ash and collagen were higher in LJ-DD, but not significantly. The cholesterol, lipid and glycogen content were higher in SD-DD, but not significantly. Moisture content was significantly higher in SD-DD (76.50%WW) than LJ-DD(73.70%WW) while total protein content was significantly lower in SD-DD(48.40%DW). For mineral profile, Se content was significantly higher in LJ-DD(0.07 mg/100g)than SD-DD(0.05 mg/100g). Besides, Mg and Al contents were higher in SD-DD and Ca、Fe、Cu and Zn contents were lower in SD-DD, but the differences were not significantly. For amino acid profile, the contents of glutamic acid, arginine, lysine and total delicious amino acid were significantly higher in LJ-DD than SD-DD. Besides, taurine content was significantly lower in SD-DD than LJ-DD. For fatty acid profile, C20:3n6 content was significantly higher in LJ-DD than SD-DD. SFA and N-3 fatty acid were higher in SD-DD, MUFA、PUFA and EPA+DHA contents were higher in LJ-DD, but not significantly. The value of N6/N3 was lower in SD-DD than LJ-DD, but the differences were not significantly. Overall, two groups had similar composition, but SD-DD had higher nutritional value than LJ-DD.To summarize, the south-north relay mode has both some negative influences and some positive influences on the nutritional quality of Haliotis discus hannai, but such difference is not too large in total.

  • 皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai)是目前我国鲍养殖主导种,其自然分布于中国山东和辽东半岛、韩国半岛、日本和俄罗斯远东海域,后得益于“北鲍南移”工程,从黄、渤海移到亚热带的福建海域养殖并发展壮大[1]。皱纹盘鲍肉质鲜美,营养和药用价值高,是一种名贵海产品,被誉为“海味珍品之冠”,深受消费者喜爱。根据中国渔业统计年鉴,2017年全国鲍的养殖产量为148539吨,其中福建省占比83.07%。但皱纹盘鲍原产于温带海域,在处于亚热带的福建海域养殖面临高温的严峻胁迫,夏季死亡率较高。

    为应对皱纹盘鲍南移后夏季高死亡率问题,养殖户采用南北接力养殖或南北对调模式,即鲍在4−5月被运往北方海域养殖度夏,11月运回南方海域继续养殖。这种模式利用了南北海域的温差特点,既提高了鲍的度夏存活率,也缩短了鲍的养殖周期,同时还规避南方高温、台风等灾害天气影响,有效提高了鲍的养殖效益[2],拓展了鲍的养殖空间。由于活鲍运输技术的提高及其成本的降低,以南方鲍养殖户为主体,南北接力养殖模式的规模逐渐扩大。

    南北接力养殖模式对鲍的生长、存活产生了积极影响,但生活环境的改变是否会导致鲍的营养品质发生变化,这也是一个值得研究的重要科学问题。本研究对周年在福建养殖和南北接力在山东度夏的皱纹盘鲍进行营养成分分析与比较,探究皱纹盘鲍在两种养殖模式下其足肌营养成分的差别,为皱纹盘鲍养殖模式的优化提供参考。

    • 全年于福建养殖的皱纹盘鲍采自福建省连江县黄岐半岛海域,南北接力养殖的皱纹盘鲍采自山东省荣成市海域,每组各12只,共24只。试验样品均由中新永丰公司养殖,投喂饵料相同,采样时间均为2017年11月,采样时均为二龄成体鲍。将活体样品带回实验室,解剖,取足肌冷冻干燥,磨粉,置于−80 °C冰柜内保存。

      本文采用缩写表示样品来源:LJ-DD表示全年于连江养殖的皱纹盘鲍,SD-DD表示通过南北接力在山东荣成市海域度夏养殖的皱纹盘鲍。由表1可知,LJ-DD的壳长、壳宽、总重及足肌重均高于SD-DD,但仅壳宽具有显著性差异(P<0.05)。

      组别壳长(mm)壳宽(mm)总重(g)足肌重(g)
      LJ-DD 81.73±6.41 55.76±2.90a 72.98±12.25 33.19±6.16
      SD-DD 78.81±5.46 51.66±2.40b 64.54±12.92 30.22±8.92
      注:表中值为平均值±标准差,同一列标注字母不同的数值表示差异显著(P<0.05),下同。
      Note: The value show mean±SD. The different letters in the same column means significant difference (P<0.05). The same below.

      Table 1.  Information of experimental abalones

    • 采用冷冻干燥法测定水分(GB 5009.3-2010);高温灼烧法测灰分(GB 5009.4-2016);分光光度法测粗蛋白(GB 5009.5-2016);索氏抽提法测粗脂肪(GB 5009.6-2016);电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP -MS)测矿物质(GB 5009.268-2016);蒽酮比色法测糖原(Braid et al. 2005);分光光度法测胆固醇(索莱宝试剂盒100T/96S)。

    • 制作羟脯氨酸标准曲线:准确吸取羟脯氨酸使用液1、2、5、10、15 mL,分别用蒸馏水定容至100 mL,此时标准曲线溶液浓度分别为1、2、5、10、15μg/mL。取1 mL蒸馏水作为空白对照,同时分别吸取以上标准曲线溶液各1 mL,在空白对照与各梯度溶液中加入1 mL柠檬酸缓冲液和1 mL氯胺T溶液,在室温(25 °C)下氧化10分钟,加入3.5 mol/L高氯酸1 mL,放置10分钟后加入1 mL配置好的发色剂,在65 °C下水浴显色20分钟,待其冷却后,在560 nm处测吸光度。

      称取0.02 g鲍鱼干样于离心管中,加入3 ml 6 mol/L盐酸溶液,封口,置于130 °C消解仪中水解 4小时,定容至50 mL后按上述方法测定其光密度值[3]

    • (1) 准确称取0.5 g样品,加水15 mL,浸泡1小时。随后用超声提取30分钟,过后在4 °C条件下,以4 000 rpm/min的转速离心2分钟,取1 ml上清液,用蒸馏水稀释至10 mL。

      (2) 取对照溶液和待测处理溶液各1 mL,加入0.5 mL的0.1 mol/L PITC乙腈溶液以及0.5 mL的1 mol/L三乙胺乙腈溶液,完全混匀后在室温下避光放置1小时。加入正己烷2 mL,混匀后用离心机以7 800 rpm/min的转速离心10分钟,液体分层后仔细吸取下层溶液,用0.22 μm滤膜过滤,备用。阴性对照品溶液采用蒸馏水,并用相同方法进行衍生[4]

      (3) 取1 mL样液装入液相小瓶。流动相A:0.1 mol/L 乙酸钠(取无水醋酸钠8.2 g,加水900 mL溶解,用乙酸调至pH 6.6,再加100 mL水);流动相B为乙腈;色谱柱填充剂采用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶(4.6×250 mm×5 μm);流速为每分钟1.0 mL;柱温为35 °C;检测波长为254 nm。洗脱梯度如表2所示。

      时间(min)流动相A(%)流动相B(%)
      0 100 0
      7 93 7
      13 91 9
      18 79 21
      25 55 45
      35 0 100
      40 100 0
      45 100 0

      Table 2.  Chromatographic column elution gradient

    • 按照GB 5009.168-2016测定脂肪酸的组分及含量。

    • 试验数据采用SPSS 24.0统计软件进行独立样本t检验,确定组间差异的显著性。试验结果均用平均值±标准差(X±SD)表示。

    2.   结果与讨论
    • 从测定结果来看,两组鲍在营养成分上存在一定的差异。“南北接力”养殖模式下的皱纹盘鲍,其足肌水分含量显著高于全年南方养殖的皱纹盘鲍(P<0.05),这可能与南北海域的盐度差异有关;“南北接力”养殖方式下的皱纹盘鲍,其足肌胆固醇、脂肪和糖原含量高于全年南方养殖的皱纹盘鲍,但差异不显著(P>0.05);皱纹盘鲍在全年南方养殖的模式下,其足肌蛋白质含量显著高于“南北接力”养殖组(P<0.05),推测可能与南北海域环境差异有关。全年南方养殖组的灰分和胶原蛋白含量高于“南北接力”养殖组,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。

      成分LJ-DDSD-DDt-test
      水分/%WW 73.70±3.48 76.50±1.35 *
      胆固醇/mmol/gprot 1.60±0.33 2.10±0.46 ns
      灰分/%DW 9.99±1.94 8.52±0.32 ns
      蛋白质/%DW 56.80±3.56 48.40±3.17 *
      脂肪/%DW 3.66±0.86 3.81±1.03 ns
      胶原蛋白/%DW 14.91±5.11 14.02±4.36 ns
      糖原/%DW 14.40±4.96 16.02±6.85 ns
      注:“*”表示P<0.05,“ns”表示无显著性差异。
      Note: *stands for P<0.05, “ns” stand for no significant difference.

      Table 3.  Common nutritive composition of two groups of abalone

    • 表4可知,鲍足肌常量元素中Mg含量最高,其次是Ca,Fe含量相对较少;“南北接力”养殖模式下,皱纹盘鲍足肌中镁和铝的含量均高于全年于南方养殖的皱纹盘鲍,但差异不显著(P>0.05);全年于南方养殖的皱纹盘鲍足肌中钙、铁、铜、锌的含量均高于“南北接力”养殖组,但差异不显著(P>0.05);“南北接力”养殖模式下,皱纹盘鲍足肌中硒的含量显著低于全年于南方养殖组(P<0.05),适量的微量元素硒对人体是有利的。

      元素LJ-DDSD-DDt-test
      Mg298.17±86.72315.51±51.79ns
      Ca149.76±57.88139.53±23.64ns
      Fe20.14±5.8817.68±5.28ns
      Mn0.17±0.060.16±0.05ns
      Al5.34±1.335.49±0.97ns
      Cu4.16±2.153.95±1.68ns
      Zn4.77±0.514.60±0.79ns
      Se0.07±0.020.05±0.02*
      注:“*”表示P<0.05,“ns”表示无显著性差异。
      Note: *stands for P<0.05, “ns” stand for no significant difference.

      Table 4.  Comparison of mineral substance

      钙、磷、钾、钠、镁和氯为人体需要较多的常量元素,亦即人体必需矿物质[5]。矿物质元素是人体组织重要的组成物质,与机体进行正常的生命活动、人体的健康生长发育有着密切的关系[6]。总体上看,鲍在两种养殖模式下其常量元素没有明显差异。矿物元素的含量并非越多越好,重要的是各种元素之间的比例合理,有研究表明,当Zn:Cu>10及Zn:Fe>1时通常会发生拮抗作用[7],而两组鲍的Zn:Cu和Zn:Fe均不满足产生拮抗作用的条件,因此两组鲍足肌中的矿物质比例都较为合理。

    • 实验结果表明(表5),“南北接力”养殖模式下皱纹盘鲍的足肌谷氨酸、精氨酸、牛磺酸和赖氨酸的含量均显著低于全年南方养殖组(P<0.05);全年南方养殖模式下,皱纹盘鲍足肌内甘氨酸含量低于南北接力组,但差异不显著(P>0.05);全年于南方养殖模式下,皱纹盘鲍足肌内丙氨酸和甲硫氨酸含量高于南北接力组,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。

      氨基酸LJ-DDSD-DDt-test
      天冬氨酸 2.18±0.78 1.62±0.54 ns
      谷氨酸 124.54±3.02 104.31±9.28 *
      甘氨酸 406.39±46.40 436.31±48.99 ns
      牛磺酸 2380.17±55.59 1977.57±120.89 *
      丙氨酸 391.55±5.77 361.51±19.47 ns
      精氨酸 371.38±27.77 271.40±79.28 *
      甲硫氨酸 28.86±5.10 19.60±13.31 ns
      赖氨酸 430.93±14.30 384.32±26.30 *
      注:“*”表示P<0.05,“ns”表示无显著性差异。
      Note: “*” stands for P<0.05, “ns” stand for no significant difference.

      Table 5.  Comparison of the amount of amino acid

      牛磺酸的药理作用众多,它具有抗肿瘤、增强特异性和非特异性免疫作用;对神经系统起到抑制、营养和保护作用;在心血管的内皮修复、抗心肌纤维化、减轻细胞该超载等具有细胞保护效应,还可促进胆固醇代谢以及防治多种心血管疾病;通过降脂和抑制肝细胞凋亡等保护肝脏,是良好的护肝剂;同时它还起到防治糖尿病、抗衰老等一系列积极作用[8]。因此,牛磺酸是一种利于健康的氨基酸,其安全性好。鲍在牛磺酸含量上具有优势,使之成为优良的海鲜食品。全年南方养殖模式下,皱纹盘鲍足肌内牛磺酸含量显著高于南北接力组,说明南北接力养殖对皱纹盘鲍的牛磺酸含量具有一定的消极影响,不过差别幅度不很大。

      味道强度值(Taste Activity Value,TAV)是呈味物质在样品中含量与它对应的味道阈值之比[9],当TAV值大于1时,此种呈味物质在呈味上有所贡献,并且当TAV值越大,呈味贡献越大[10]。实验所测氨基酸其味道阈值,所得TAV值,以及氨基酸对应的呈味特征如表6所示。由TAV结果可知,赖氨酸、精氨酸和丙氨酸对鲍鱼足肌有重要的呈味贡献,其次是谷氨酸和甘氨酸。赖氨酸虽呈现苦味,但其含量占呈味氨基酸的24%左右(LJ-DD:24.54%;SD-DD:24.34%),且两组间无显著差异(P>0.05),但全年南方养殖组的呈味氨基酸总量显著高于南北接力组(LJ-DD:1.76±0.02 g/100 g;SD-DD:1.58±0.32 g/100g)(P<0.05)。

      味道阈值(mg·100−1·g−1)味道特征TAV
      LJ-DDSD-DD
      天冬氨酸 Asp 100 甜(+) 0.02 0.02
      谷氨酸 Gln 30 鲜/酸(+) 4.15 3.48
      甘氨酸 Gly 130 甜(+) 3.13 3.36
      丙氨酸 Ala 60 甜(+) 6.53 6.03
      精氨酸 Arg 50 苦/甜(+) 7.43 5.43
      甲硫氨酸 Met 30 苦/甜(-) 0.96 0.65
      赖氨酸 Lys 50 甜/苦(-) 8.62 7.69
      注:“+”表示鲜味、甜味;“-”表示苦味
      Note: “+” stands for umami and sweet; “-” stands for bitter taste

      Table 6.  Threshold value of flavor, TAV and characteristics of flavor of free amino acid

    • 实验结果表明,皱纹盘鲍在全年于南方养殖条件下,脂肪酸C20:3n6含量显著高于南北接力养殖组(P<0.05);皱纹盘鲍在南北接力养殖模式下,饱和脂肪酸和n-3族脂肪酸高于全年于南方养殖组,单不饱和脂肪酸和多不饱和脂肪酸含量与之相反,但差异均不显著(P>0.05);全年南方养殖模式下,皱纹盘鲍足肌内的EPA和DHA含量略高于南北接力养殖组,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。

      饱和脂肪酸可为人体提供活动所需的能量,还与免疫系统的调节有着密切关系,可抑制肿瘤生长等,同时其中的棕榈酸、硬脂酸对降低血清胆固醇有着积极作用[11]。单不饱和脂肪酸在保护心脏、降低血糖、调节血脂、降低胆固醇、防止记忆下降等方面表现乐观[12]。多不饱和脂肪酸则与肥胖、心脑血管疾病有着密切关系,同时也在减轻炎症反应、细胞膜功能调节、机体免疫方面有所作用[13]。由于我国居民生活水平的不断提高,人们摄取脂肪总量不断增加,然而摄入的多不饱和脂肪酸,尤其是n-3族脂肪酸的占比在不断下降,这是造成高血压、高血脂、脑中风等心脑血管疾病的主要原因。n-3族脂肪酸在人体内无法合成,必须从外界摄入,从表7数据可以得出,相较于全年南方养殖组,南北接力养殖模式下的皱纹盘鲍是更好的n-3族脂肪酸来源。含有均衡脂肪酸的食物对人体健康和生长发育具有积极意义,而用来衡量脂肪酸营养价值的重要指标就是n-3族脂肪酸与n-6族脂肪酸的比值(N6/N3),比值越低的食物通常被认为具有越高的营养价值[14]。实验结果表明,相较于全年南方养殖组,南北接力养殖模式下的皱纹盘鲍具有更高的脂肪酸营养价值。

      脂肪酸LJ-DDSD-DDt-test
      C14:0 0.62±0.38 0.97±0.54 ns
      C15:0 0.46±0.36 0.75±0.16 ns
      C16:0 19.10±2.11 21.67±2.46 ns
      C17:0 1.73±0.25 1.60±0.40 ns
      C18:0 8.67±0.20 9.30±0.79 ns
      C23:0 9.46±0.74 8.91±1.25 ns
      C24:0 7.02±0.80 7.11±0.55 ns
      SFA 47.15±4.11 50.48±2.09 ns
      C17:1 0.99±0.18 1.18±0.40 ns
      C18:1n9t 5.59±0.44 5.73±0.89 ns
      C18:1n9c 11.54±1.83 11.13±0.34 ns
      C20:1n9 5.84±0.32 4.83±1.64 ns
      C24:1n9 3.46±0.55 3.38±0.58 ns
      MUFA 27.43±1.32 26.25±1.26 ns
      C18:2n6c 1.35±0.22 1.26±0.31 ns
      C20:2 0.28±0.10 0.35±0.09 ns
      C20:3n6 0.63±0.06 0.39±0.21 *
      C20:3n3 5.35±2.26 9.72±4.46 ns
      PUFA 25.42±4.93 23.26±1.15 ns
      EPA+DHA 6.53±1.00 6.32±0.65 ns
      N3 11.88±9.81 16.04±8.88 ns
      N6 13.27±10.69 9.03±6.87 ns
      N6/N3 2.05±1.73 1.04±0.67 ns
      注:“*”表示P<0.05,“ns”表示无显著性差异。
      Note: “*” stands for P<0.05, “ns” stand for no significant difference.

      Table 7.  Comparison of fatty acid components

      总体上看,皱纹盘鲍在不同养殖方式下,其饱和脂肪酸、单不饱和脂肪酸、多不饱和脂肪酸总量均无显著差异(P>0.05),仅C20:3n6脂肪酸含量呈现显著差异,但相较于全年南方养殖组,南北接力养殖模式下的皱纹盘鲍具有更高的脂肪酸营养价值。

    3.   结论
    • 本文分别测定了全年于南方养殖和南北接力养殖两种养殖模式下皱纹盘鲍的营养成分,对测定结果进行比较分析,发现皱纹盘鲍在不同养殖方式下,其灰分、脂肪、胶原蛋白和糖原含量均无显著差异。“南北接力”养殖模式下的皱纹盘鲍,其足肌蛋白质、牛磺酸、谷氨酸、精氨酸、呈味氨基酸总量和硒含量均显著低于全年南方养殖的皱纹盘鲍,但“南北接力”养殖模式下的皱纹盘鲍相比于全年南方养殖组有更高的脂肪酸营养价值。综上,南北接力养殖模式对皱纹盘鲍的营养成分既有积极影响,又有消极影响,但总体上看差别不很显著。

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